APEX test user creation

This is probably a very silly question but I recall on some forums a conversation in regards to this subject. I’m working on my code coverage for an apex class. For that test I need to use the user object to obtain certain information from a number of users. I need to get access to Country, Title, and some other information, can be from any user.

This is not big deal.
The question is,

if need I users for my test, should I use real user ids?


Can I create users inside the test class?

Why I asking this… I believe, like a mentioned on the first lines of this post, that I need to have free licences in order for me to create those users on the test class. I think that a conversation on this subject took place with Jeff Douglas in a forum, but can’t remember the outcome of it.
Anyone can explain what is the actual situation on this matter?


Taken from the documentation:

Generally, all Apex code runs in system mode, where the permissions and record sharing of the current user are not taken into account. The system method runAs enables you to write test methods that change the user context to an existing user or a new user so that the user’s record sharing is enforced. The runAs method doesn’t enforce user permissions or field-level permissions, only record sharing.

You can use runAs only in test methods. The original system context is started again after all runAs test methods complete.

The runAs method ignores user license limits. You can create new users with runAs even if your organization has no additional user licenses.

private class TestRunAs {
    public static testMethod void testRunAs() {
        // Setup test data
        // This code runs as the system user
        Profile p = [SELECT Id FROM Profile WHERE Name='Standard User']; 
        User u = new User(Alias = 'standt', Email='standarduser@testorg.com', 
            EmailEncodingKey='UTF-8', LastName='Testing', LanguageLocaleKey='en_US', 
            LocaleSidKey='en_US', ProfileId = p.Id, 
            TimeZoneSidKey='America/Los_Angeles', UserName='standarduser@testorg.com');

        System.runAs(u) {
            // The following code runs as user 'u' 
            System.debug('Current User: ' + UserInfo.getUserName());
            System.debug('Current Profile: ' + UserInfo.getProfileId()); 

Source : Link , Question Author : Carlos Naranjo , Answer Author : Alex Tennant

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