Common words that have particular statistical meanings

I am not a statistician but my research work involves statistics (analyzing data, reading literature, etc.). I was again reminded from a comment on one of my questions posted here that there are some common words that have particularly specific meanings or connotations for those who are well-practiced in the field of statistics.

It will be helpful to have a list of such words and may be phrases along with some comments.


I found a refereed paper from 2010 that looks at this question.

Anderson-Cook CM. Hidden jargon: Everyday words with meanings specific to statistics. ICOTS8, International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 11-17 July 2010.

The paper is available for free online, so I am only providing a partial list of the terms that the author discusses:

 confounding, control, factor, independent, random, uniform

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